Collaborative Effort Reshaping Solar Development in the United States
Solar developers, environmentalists, farming organizations, and tribal groups announced on Thursday that they have reached a consensus, potentially simplifying the construction of large solar farms in the United States, which have faced strong opposition in some areas.
This agreement aims to tackle complex land-use and biodiversity challenges that often impede energy projects involving the installation of expansive arrays of solar panels. The accord is the outcome of months of dialogues coordinated by the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, the Solar Energy Industries Association, and the Nature Conservancy.
Several factions have voiced their objections to extensive solar initiatives, contending that they encroach upon land considered sacred by tribal communities or provide habitat for endangered flora and fauna. Some individuals have also opposed solar farms on aesthetic grounds, claiming that they disrupt scenic views or the rural ambiance of their neighborhoods.
Participants involved in the discussions leading to this agreement assert that it will provide project developers and potential adversaries with a framework, emphasizing greater public involvement at the initial site selection stage, to address concerns without resorting to legal or political confrontations. Consequently, this can expedite the adoption of solar energy and contribute to the fight against climate change.
“These conflicts erupting across the nation do not benefit any party involved,” noted Dan Reicher, a renewable energy expert at the Woods Institute, who initiated these discussions. “The positive aspect is that they have chosen to set aside their differences and explore a fresh approach.”
The agreement includes representatives from various groups that have been critical of solar projects. However, it does not encompass the fossil fuel industry or conservatives who have aimed to impede or halt the adoption of clean energy. It remains uncertain how influential this agreement will be in persuading local factions opposing projects within their communities.
Nonetheless, Abigail Ross Hopper, the President and CEO of the solar association, expressed that the agreement will facilitate quicker resolution of disputes between developers, environmental advocates, and local groups. Her organization, the largest trade association in the industry, estimates that the United States must raise its solar electricity share to 30 percent by 2030, up from the current 5 percent.
“We’re observing concerns in rural America regarding the location and design of these projects,” said Ms. Hopper.
Although expanding rooftop solar installations, which typically encounter less opposition, can help fulfill some of the electricity demand, a 2021 study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory determined that residential and commercial solar panels can satisfy only up to 20 percent of the total requirement. The remaining capacity must be met by larger projects that occupy more land. Some estimates suggest that the number of required solar panels in the United States could fill an area as extensive as the combined land mass of Massachusetts and Connecticut.
The agreement stemmed from discussions that commenced nearly two years ago. Mr. Reicher and Ms. Hopper orchestrated meetings involving an array of stakeholders, including solar developers, the Nature Conservancy, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the American Farmland Trust, the North American Indian Center of Boston, and WE ACT for Environmental Justice.
Energy Secretary Jennifer M. Granholm was an active participant in some of these discussions, though the federal government did not formally become a signatory to the agreement. Ms. Granholm endorsed the effort, stating that it “sets us on the course to not only achieve President Biden’s ambitious objectives of 100 percent clean electricity by 2035 and conserving at least 30 percent of America’s lands and waters by 2030, but to do so in the right manner.”
The parties involved in the agreement highlighted a solar project situated on the grounds of a coal mine in Kentucky as a model for the approach they hope to implement nationwide. This project, named Starfire, will have the capacity to generate sufficient energy to meet the annual needs of 170,000 households once completed.
The electric truck manufacturer Rivian is a partner in this endeavor, seeking to offset some of the energy consumed by the pickups and other vehicles it markets. Collaborating with the Nature Conservancy and BrightNight, the project’s developer and operator, they selected the Starfire location after evaluating approximately 100 alternatives. They determined that by choosing a former mine, a portion of which is still in coal production, they could avoid developing on land that might be better suited for other purposes, such as agriculture.
“What we are witnessing here is an evolution in this discourse, moving away from the narrative of clean energy versus environmental conservation,” explained Jessica Wilkinson, who leads the renewable energy team for North America at the Nature Conservancy. “Not every project will be ideal, and we acknowledge that there will be trade-offs. However, there are projects that genuinely can reduce conflicts and expedite progress.”
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